Paraphaenocladius penerasus

Author: (Edwards, 1929)

Diagnosis (in part after Saether and Wang, 1995a - in italics)
Exuviae 2.1-3.0mm long (n=4).
Cephalothorax: Frontal setae and warts absent. Thoracic horn elongate, 145-200µm long (n=4), toothed apically; ThR 8.9-11.7 (n=3). Thoracic horn 161-204µm long, 19-23µm wide, 1.79-2.18x as long as longer terminal seta on anal lobe. Precorneal setae 56-86µm long. Median antepronotals 75-86µm long, lateral antepronotals 45µm long (n=1) long. Dorsocentrals each 26-45µm long, distance between setae 1 and 2: 23µm (n=2), between setae 2 and 3: 71µm (n=1), between setae 3 and 4: 51µm (n=1). Wing sheaths without nose, pearl row present, with 28-30 pearls.
Abdomen: Hook row II absent. Tergite I bare; tergites II-VI with extensive coarse shagreen, median points largest; VII-VIII with relatively extensive shagreen. Tergites II-V with the points gradually increasing in size from the anterior margin. Posterior points of tergites III/IV-VIII obviously enlarged, contrasting with those preceding. Segment VIII dorsally covered with points, including the paratergites; segment VII with anterior half of the paratergites armed. Sternites I-III bare, IV with postero-median shagreen, V with median and posterior, VI with relatively extensive median, and sternites VII-VIII with relatively extensive shagreen. Shagreen grading over into small posterior spines distinct on tergites VI-VIII and sternites VI-VII (female) or VII (male)..
Anal segment: Tergite IX with median shagreen; sternite IX bare. Anal lobe ratio 2.2, 2.5 (n=2). Anal lobes without fringe; lobes usually folded inwards and so appearing parallel-sided and apically truncate; apically with 6-7 spines. Two strong apical setae on the anal lobes, one about three-quarters the length of the other (065h.jpg). Length of anal macrosetae 88-100µm long (n=4).
(Linked adult male: Langton and Pinder, 2003a)

Species keys out at Page 807: Orthocladiinae 219 Paraphaenocladius of the Text Key.

(S)W+C Europe.
(For more information see module IdentifyIt – file: Orthocladiinae).

Ecological notes
Known from wet moss, streams and ditches, reported from Great Britain and The Netherlands; findings from Switzerland, France and Austria need reexamination.